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Wichita Falls Water Quality Report

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Sources Of Drinking Water in Wichita Falls, Texas

Raw Water from Lakes Arrowhead and Kickapoo are pumped into the City limits and stored at a Secondary Reservoir. The Secondary Reservoir retains 75 Million gallons of water within the City limits. At the Secondary Reservoir the water is blended from the two lakes to make treatment more uniform and a small amount of presedimentation takes place. This is the feed water source for all the conventional treatment plants. Raw water from Lake Kemp (Lake Diversion) is pumped via an irrigation ditch to a reservoir northwest of Wichita Falls. This water is the feed source for the Micro-Filtration/Reverse Osmosis plant. 

The Raw Water is treated with Chlorine Dioxide in the transmission lines as it is taken to the plants. Chlorine dioxide is added to begin disinfection. It is one of the most powerful disinfectants available to eliminate waterborne pathogens. Chlorine Dioxide is also effective at removing Taste and Odors that may be present in the water. 

The City of Wichita Falls utilizes Chloramines as its primary disinfectant for the conventional plant. Chloramines are formed by the reaction of Chlorine and Ammonia. COAGULATION Ferric Sulfate and Polymer is added to the water to begin the removal of particles, known as Turbidity. These two chemicals attract the Turbidity and begin to form larger particles that are removed later in the treatment process. 

The City of Wichita Falls does Soften its drinking water. Carbonate Hardness is removed by the addition of Lime to the process stream. This is a mechanical process where the water is gently stirred to cause the particles formed in the coagulation process to come into contact with one another and form even larger particles, making them heavy. These heavier particles are known as 'floc' particles. 

Sedimentation is a physical process where the water passes into a quiescent area of the process. Because there is no stirring action, the heavy floc particles settle out of the water by gravity. The Lime Softening process is terminated by the addition of Carbon Dioxide. This chemical adjusts the pH down to a level that Softening process stops. The City of Wichita Falls Fluoridates its drinking water. This is not a required component of water treatment, but the City believes that it is necessary to help prevent dental cavities in the City's children's teeth.

Source: City of Wichita Falls

Contaminants Found in Wichita Falls' Water Supply

(Detected above health guidelines)

1,2,3-Trichloropropane

1,2,3-Trichloropropane is a potent carcinogen that contaminates drinking water in agricultural regions where it was historically used as soil fumigant.

Arsenic

Arsenic is a potent carcinogen and common contaminant in drinking water. Arsenic causes thousands of cases of cancer each year in the U.S.

 

Bromodichloromethane

Bromodichloromethane, one of the total trihalomethanes (TTHMs), is formed when chlorine or other disinfectants are used to treat drinking water. Bromodichloromethane and other disinfection byproducts increase the risk of cancer and may cause problems during pregnancy.

Chlorite

Chlorite is a disinfection byproduct resulting from water treatment with chlorine dioxide. Chlorite decreases hemoglobin levels and causes other hematologic effects.

Chloroform

Chloroform, one of the total trihalomethanes (TTHMs), is formed when chlorine or other disinfectants are used to treat drinking water. Chloroform and other disinfection byproducts increase the risk of cancer and may cause problems during pregnancy.

Chromium (hexavalent)

Chromium (hexavalent) is a carcinogen that commonly contaminates American drinking water. Chromium (hexavalent) in drinking water may be due to industrial pollution or natural occurrences in mineral deposits and groundwater.

Dibromochloromethane

Dibromochloromethane, one of the total trihalomethanes (TTHMs), is formed when chlorine or other disinfectants are used to treat drinking water.

Dichloroacetic acid

Dichloroacetic acid, one of the group of five haloacetic acids regulated by federal standards, is formed when chlorine or other disinfectants are used to treat drinking water. Haloacetic acids and other disinfection byproducts increase the risk of cancer and may cause problems during pregnancy.

Total trihalomethanes (TTHMs)

Trihalomethanes are cancer-causing contaminants that form during water treatment with chlorine and other disinfectants. The total trihalomethanes group includes four chemicals: chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform.

Trichloroacetic acid

Trichloroacetic acid, one of the group of five haloacetic acids regulated by federal standards, is formed when chlorine or other disinfectants are used to treat drinking water. Haloacetic acids and other disinfection byproducts increase the risk of cancer and may cause problems during pregnancy.

Source: https://www.ewg.org

Potential Health Effects of Consuming These Contaminants

Health risks of 1,2,3-Trichloropropane in excess of health guideline

Cancer: The health guideline of 0.0007 ppb for 1,2,3-trichloropropane was defined by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as a public health goal, the level of a drinking water contaminant that does not pose a significant health risk. This health guideline protects against cancer.

 

Health ricks of Arsenic in excess of health guideline

Cancer: The health guideline of 0.004 ppb for arsenic was defined by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as a public health goal, the level of a drinking water contaminant that does not pose a significant health risk. This health guideline protects against cancer.

Health risks of bromodichloromethane in excess of health guideline

Cancer: The health guideline of 0.4 ppb for bromodichloromethane was defined by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as a one-in-a-million lifetime risk of cancer. Values greater than one-in-a-million cancer risk level can result in increased cancer cases above one in a million people.

Health risks of chlorite in excess of health guideline

Blood: The health guideline of 50 ppb for chlorite was defined by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as a public health goal, the level of a drinking water contaminant that does not pose a significant health risk. This health guideline protects against change in blood chemistry.

Health risks of chloroform in excess of health guideline

Cancer: The health guideline of 1 ppb for chloroform was defined by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as a one-in-a-million lifetime risk of cancer. Values greater than one-in-a-million cancer risk level can result in increased cancer cases above one in a million people.

Health risks of chromium (hexavalent) in excess of health guideline

Cancer: The health guideline of 0.02 ppb for chromium (hexavalent) was defined by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as a public health goal, the level of a drinking water contaminant that does not pose a significant health risk. This health guideline protects against cancer.

Health risks of dichloroacetic acid in excess of health guideline

Cancer: The health guideline of 0.7 ppb for dichloroacetic acid was defined by the Environmental Protection Agency as a one-in-a-million lifetime risk of cancer. Values greater than one-in-a-million cancer risk level can result in increased cancer cases above one in a million people.

Health risks of trihalomethanes in excess of health guideline

Cancer: The health guideline of 0.8 ppb for trihalomethanes was defined by the California Office of Environmental Health Hazard Assessment as a draft public health goal, the level of drinking water contaminant that does not pose a significant health risk. This health guideline protects against cancer.

Health risks of trichloroacetic acid in excess of health guideline

Cancer: The health guideline of 0.5 ppb for trichloroacetic acid was defined by the Environmental Protection Agency as a one-in-a-million lifetime risk of cancer. Values greater than one-in-a-million cancer risk level can result in increased cancer cases above one in a million people.

Health risks of dibromochloromethane  in excess of health guidelines

Cancer & Birth Defects: Dibromochloromethane and other disinfection byproducts increase the risk of cancer and may cause problems during pregnancy.

Source: https://www.ewg.org

Contaminant Levels in Wichita Falls, Texas Compared to Other Regions

 

1,2,3-Trichloropropane

 - Health Guideline: 0.0007 ppb

 - State: 0.000517 ppb

 - Wichita Falls, TX: 0.00138 ppb

 - National: 0.000382 ppb

Arsenic

 - Health Guideline: 0.004 ppb

 - State: 1.99 ppb 

 - Wichita Falls, TX: 0.803 ppb

 

 - National: 1.33 ppb

Bromodichloromethane

 - Health Guideline: 0.4 ppb

 - State: 4.29 ppb

 - Wichita Falls, TX: 9.80 ppb

 - National: 4.37 ppb

Chlorite

 - Health Guideline: 50 ppb

 - State: 302.4 ppb

 - National: 267.4 ppb

 - Wichita Falls, TX: 277.4 ppb

Chloroform

 - Health Guideline: 1.0 ppb

 - State: 6.64 ppb

 - National: 11.4 ppb

 - Wichita Falls, TX: 14.4 ppb

Chromium (hexavalent)

 - Health Guideline: 0.02 ppb

 - Wichita Falls, TX: 0.684 ppb

 - State: 0.265 ppb

 - National: 0.782 ppb

Dichloroacetic acid

 - Health Guideline: 0.7 ppb

 - State: 6.35 ppb

 - National: 6.00 ppb

 - Wichita Falls, TX: 13.1 ppb

Total trihalomethanes (TTHMs)

 - Health Guideline: 0.8 ppb

 - State: 25.8 ppb

 - National: 23.4 ppb

 - Wichita Falls, TX: 35.8 ppb

Trichloroacetic acid

 - Health Guideline: 0.5 ppb

 - State: 3.33 ppb

 - National: 4.93 ppb

 - Wichita Falls, TX: 2.97 ppb

Source: https://www.ewg.org/

 

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